A Simple script to implement AWS EC2 TTL (Time to Live)

In dynamic cloud environments, customers often spin up resources for short lived workloads. This is a common practice especially in dev/test environments. The problem is these resources are often forgotten after the tests are complete, resulting in wasted spending with the cloud service provider.

A highly desirable feature for cloud cost management is a TTL (Time to Live) parameter that can be attached to a resource during provisioning, enabling it to be automatically terminated after a specified period of time. AWS offers TTL capabilities for certain resources, such as DynamoDB, S3, and CloudFormation provides ways to setup TTL on entire application stacks (details here). However there is no easy way to set TTL on EC2 instances, which constitute the bulk of of cloud spend for most AWS customers.

Here are a few techniques that can be used to implement TTL for AWS EC2 instances. These techniques can help customers  control their AWS costs.

  1. Lambda functions: A Lambda function can periodically scan for EC2 instances, identify instances with specific tags running longer than the required TTL, and stop/terminate them.
  2. Scripts that run on EC2 instances that periodically check of EC2 life and stop/terminate unused ones.
  3. Create instances with a ‘terminate on shutdown’ flag and force a shutdown at the end of the test.

At FittedCloud, we use extensive scripting in our engineering environment and terminating unused instances is something we keep an eye out for often. We use a very simple script to do this. Our requirement are quite simple –  we need instances created from a specific AMI or with specific tags to run only for a certain period of time.

You will see below a simple script that can be used to list and stop EC2 instances that have been running longer the specified period of time.

Usage is as below:

usage: ec2TTL.py [-h] -a ACCESSKEY -s SECRETKEY -r REGIONS [REGIONS ...]

optional arguments:

-h, --help            show this help message and exit
-a ACCESSKEY, --access-key ACCESSKEY
-s SECRETKEY, --secret-key SECRETKEY
-r REGIONS [REGIONS ...], --regions REGIONS [REGIONS ...]
-i AMIID, --amiId AMIID
-k TAGKEY, --tagKey TAGKEY
-x STOP, --stop STOP

AMIID, TagKey, TagValue are Optional.  If an AMIID is specified, only instances created from the AMI are reported. If TagKey/TagValue are specified only instances with specified tags are listed.

Use -x option if instances should be stopped. (Terminate instances is deliberately not provided, but could be easily added)

One could simply automate the process by running this script periodically (using tools such as  cron on Linux).

# Copyright 2018, FittedCloud, Inc.
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#    http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
# Author: Gregory Fedynyshyn (greg@fittedcloud.com)
# Date: 2/14/2018

import os
import boto3
import botocore
import arrow
import datetime
import pytz
import argparse
from dateutil.tz import *
import sys
import re

class EC2Lib:
    def __init__(self, accessKey, secretKey, region, SessionToken=None):
        self.accessKey      = accessKey
        self.secretKey      = secretKey
        self.region         = region
        self.sessionToken   = SessionToken

            self.client  = boto3.client('ec2',
        except botocore.exceptions.ClientError as e:
            eMsg = e.response['Error']['Message']
            print('error in create session %s' %eMsg)
            e = sys.exc_info()[0]
            print('error in create session %s' %e)

    # Reports list of EC2 instances that are older than specified TTL
    # If amiId is specified only instanaces created from the specified AMI is returned
    # If tagName/Value is specified returns only matching instances. Tags can be regular expressions
    def ListEC2Instances(self, amiId=None, ttlInHours=None, tagKey=None, tagValue=None):

            Filters = [{'Name': 'instance-state-name', 'Values': ['running']}]
            if amiId != None:
                Filters.append({'Name': 'image-id', 'Values': [amiId]})
            response = self.client.describe_instances(Filters=Filters)
        except botocore.exceptions.ClientError as error:
            print("Failed to describe instances %s" %(error.response['Error']['Message']))
            return []
            e = sys.exc_info()[0]
            print("Failed to call boto3.client describe instance %s" %(e))
            return []

        ec2List = []
        for reservation in response['Reservations']:
            for instance in reservation['Instances']:

                now = datetime.datetime.now(pytz.timezone('UTC'))
                timeToCheck = now - datetime.timedelta(hours=ttlInHours)

                if instance['LaunchTime'] < timeToCheck:
                    # Find tag named 'Name' (for easier identification of instance)
                    instanceName = 'NoName'
                    for tags in (instance['Tags']):
                        if (tags['Key'] == 'Name'):
                            instanceName = tags['Value']

                    # If no tag specified add item to list
                    if tagKey == None:
                        ec2List.append({'id': instance['InstanceId'], 'name':instanceName, 'launchTime':instance['LaunchTime']})

                    # Tag name/value specified, search for specified tags
                    regexKey   = re.compile(tagKey)
                    regexValue = re.compile(tagValue)

                    for tag in instance['Tags']:
                        if re.match(regexKey, tag['Key'] ) and re.match( regexValue, tag['Value']):
                            ec2List.append({'id': instance['InstanceId'], 'name':instanceName, 'launchTime':instance['LaunchTime']})
        return ec2List

    def StopInstance(self, ec2Id):
            response = self.client.stop_instances( InstanceIds=[ec2Id], Force=True)
        except botocore.exceptions.ClientError as e:
            print('Error stopping ec2 = %s, error = %s' %(ec2Id, e.response['Error']['Message']))
            return False
            print("Failed to call boto3.client for ec2 %s" %ec2Id)
            return False
        return True

def ParseArgs(arg):
    parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()

    parser.add_argument("-a", "--access-key", dest="accessKey", required=True)
    parser.add_argument("-s", "--secret-key", dest="secretKey", required=True)
    parser.add_argument("-r", "--regions", dest="regions", nargs='+', required=True)
    parser.add_argument("-i",  "--amiId", dest="amiId", default=None, required=False)
    parser.add_argument("-t", "--ttl", type=int, dest="ttlInHours", default=None, required=True)
    parser.add_argument("-k", "--tagKey", dest="tagKey", default=None, required=False)
    parser.add_argument("-v", "--tagValue", dest="tagValue", default=None, required=False)
    parser.add_argument("-x", "--stop", dest="stop", default=False, required=False)
    return parser.parse_args()

if __name__ == "__main__":
    args = ParseArgs(sys.argv)

    instancesStopped = 0
    for region in args.regions:
        ec2Lib = EC2Lib(args.accessKey, args.secretKey, region)

        ec2List = ec2Lib.ListEC2Instances(args.amiId, args.ttlInHours, args.tagKey, args.tagValue)

        for ec2 in ec2List:
            now = arrow.now()
            print('%s, %s, %s, %d days %d hours alive' %(ec2['id'], ec2['name'], ec2['launchTime'].strftime('%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S'),
                         (now.datetime-ec2['launchTime']).days, (now.datetime-ec2['launchTime']).seconds/60/60))

            if args.stop:
                if ec2List.StopInstance(ec2['id']) == True:
                    print( 'EC2 %s, %s stopped' %(ec2['id'], ec2['name']))
                    instancesStopped += 1

    print('%d EC2 instances alive longer than %d hours stopped' %(instancesStopped, args.ttlInHours ))


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